Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Frederick Douglass Paper,. 1854, p. pg. 1. Jan 17, 2017

The newspaper article tells about Elizabeth’s life shortly after the incident on the streetcar. It informs the reader about what Jennings’ life was like as it slowly began to return to normal.

Frederick Douglass Newspaper. “Legal Rights Vindicated.” 1855.

The newspaper article talks about Thomas Jennings’ speech.  It also talks about following the lead of a woman to desegregate streetcars (Elizabeth Jennings).  The article lets the reader know how close they were to desegregate streetcars and how Elizabeth Jennings inspired others.

New York Daily Tribune. “Outrage Upon Colored Persons.” 1854, p.7. Oct 28, 2016.

This newspaper article printed by the New York Daily Tribune in 1854 states exactlywhat happened on Elizabeth’s ride by quoting the statement she had written and whiread during a meeting at her church following the incident.  The article gives the readeran insight of her experience on the streetcar.  A photograph of the newspaper can befound on the website.


New York Daily Tribune. “Resolutions Unanimously Adopted At The First Colored

Congregational Church.” 1854.

This newspaper article printed by the New York Daily Tribune in 1854 states all the resolutions that were made the day Jennings’ letter was read at her church. The article gives the reader an idea of how the people of the church felt about the situation and how they handles it.  I received the article from Dr. Katherine Perrotta from Georgia State University.

Robinson, Marius E. and Ann Pearson. “Rights of Colored People Vindicated.” The Anti-

SlaveryBugle, 1855, p. 3. Oct 20, 2016.

This newspaper article printed by the Anti-Slavery Bugle in 1855 tells how Elizabeth refused to leave the streetcar and then was forcefully removed as well as how she won her case in court.  The article gives a detailed look at the events that evening on the streetcar and her lawsuit. The newspaper in which the article can be found is pictured on the website.

The New York Age. “New York’s Lack Of Public Spirit.”

This newspaper article talks about Jennings’ streetcar incident, her court case, and her teaching career.  It tells the reader about African American schools at the time.  It also gives the address of Elizabeth’s kindergarten inside of her home.

The Pacific Appeal. “The Right Of Colored People To Ride In The Railway Cars.” 1863

This newspaper article printed by The Pacific Appeal is written by Elizabeth Jennings’ father, Thomas Jennings.  The article is telling the readers of the time about the unfairness of the laws.  The article helps explain what life was like for African Americans men and women while referencing Elizabeth Jennings’ court case.


Secondary Sources


Bellis, Mary. “The History Of Streetcars – Cable Cars”. The Balance, 2016, Jan 14, 2017

The article explains the history of streetcars from horse drawn to trolley cars. The article helps to better understand the conditions Elizabeth Jennings was faced with when entering a streetcar.

Bohan, Chara. Personal Interview.  Jan 27, 2017

During the interview we discussed how she began to to research Elizabeth Jennings, some interesting things she has learned, and Jennings’ impact.  The interview is helpful in telling her story by helping tell her impact from someone who has researched her for many years.

Capobianco, Grace A. “Elizabeth Jennings Graham – Lower Manhattan’s Rosa Parks”.

Downtown, 2012, Jan 12, 2017.

The article gives a look into her impact on public transportation. It also talks about her street sign.  It gives the reader an idea of her importance.

Greider, Katharine. “The Schoolteacher on the Streetcar.” New York Times. New York, NY,

  1. Oct 17, 2016.

The article talks about why Rosa Parks is more well known than Elizabeth Jennings as well as her struggle with the conductor and many aspects of her life after the event.  It gives a description of her life and how she may have felt during the events.


Haskins, James. Freedom Rides. New York: Hyperio Books, 1995.

This book talks about her struggle to remain on a 3rd Avenue streetcar by voicing her opinions as well as discussing the strides she made to desegregate streetcars by suing the company.  It informs people on what life was like as an African American trying to ride a New York streetcar in 1854.

Hepp, John. “Streetcars”. Philadelphia Encyclopedia, 2013,  Jan 15, 2017

This article discusses the evolution of streetcars in Philadelphia.  It also talks about segregation on streetcars and when Philadelphia finally desegregated their cars.  The article gives good background information on what streetcars were like in Philadelphia from the mid-nineteenth century until modern times.

Hewitt, John H. “The Search for Elizabeth Jennings, Heroine of a Sunday Afternoon in

New York City.” JSTOR, 1990. Oct 24, 2016.

The article talks about her time spent on the streetcar fighting for her rights and in court as well her many years of teaching and accomplishments.  The article gives a detailed insight into her life by using many primary sources as references, from the streetcar to her death.

Mikorenda, Jerry. “A Bold Man Of Color: Thomas L. Jennings And The Proceeds Of A

Patent”. The Gotham Center For New York City History, 2016, Jan

17, 2017

This article talks about the patent and other important achievements made By Thomas L. Jennings.  The article discusses his family who also were very important business people and involved in the civil rights movement.  It gives the reader a good idea of why Elizabeth Jennings was so strong natured and determined.

O’Reilly, Edward. “Before Rosa Parks: Taking On New York’s Segregated Street Car

Companies”. New York Historical Society, 2012,  Jan 13, 2017.

This article describes Elizabeth Jennings’ protests along with the protests of Thomas Downing and Ellen Anderson.  The article helps understand what other events happened shortly after Elizabeth Jennings’ inspiring stand.

Perrotta, Katherine A. and Chara Haeussler Bohan. “Nineteenth Century Rosa Parks?

Assessing Elizabeth Jennings’ Legacy As A Teacher And Civil Rights Pioneer In

Antebellum America”. Georgia State University, 2013, Jan 10,


The article discusses Elizabeth Jenings’ many legacies. It talks about her life after her court case, as a schoolteacher, and how and why she is missing from most social studies curriculum. The article gives the reader a clear statement about what Elizabeth Jennings’ legacy really is.


“Philadelphia African-Americans Desegregate Trolley Cars, 1865-1869”. Global

Nonviolent Action Database, 2012, Jan

7, 2017

This article contains information on the protests that led to the desegregation of streetcars in Philadelphia.  It discusses many important unknown civil rights activists after the civil war in Philadelphia. The article gives accurate information and important details that led to the desegregation of streetcars in a place other than New York.

Sassi, Laura. “Elizabeth Jennings Takes a Stand.”  Highlights for Children, vol. 62, no.1,

2007, 30-31. Oct 17, 2016.

The article discusses the many struggles, including the issue of segregation, for an      African American living in New York in the 1850s and Elizabeth Jennings’many triumphs throughout her lifetime. The article gives people an insight into Elizabeth’s life during a difficult time.

Saxena, Jaya. “Before Claudette Colvin And Rosa Parks, Elizabeth Jennings”. New York

Historical Association, 2014, Jan 14, 2017.

This article explains Elizabeth Jennings’ impact.  It informs the reader of the important events that led to the desegregation of New York streetcars.  The article is an important resource in understanding Jennings’ impact on public transportation.

“Who Came Before Rosa Parks?”. Beyond Black And White, 2013, Jan 4, 2017.

This article compares Rosa Parks achievements with the achievements of Elizabeth Jennings and many other forgotten civil rights heroes.  It describes her court case and the desegregation of New York streetcars.  The article gives helps to understand Jennings’ impact and Rosa Parks’.

Williams, Jasmine K. “Elizabeth Jennings Graham, Forgotten Warrior.”  New York

Amsterdam News, Dec 13 2012. Oct 17, 2016.

The article describes the unfair, segregated treatment Elizabeth Jennings faced on the streetcar as well as in court along with discussing her fame compared to other well known African Americans specifically Rosa Parks.  It informs readers on the cruelty of streetcars in the 1850s and Elizabeth’s determination to end it.

Wilt, A. “Elizabeth Jennings Graham: The Rosa Parks Of 1855”. Back In The USA, 2016, Jan 14, 2017.


This article talks about Jennings’ experiences on the streetcar.  It also talks about her lengthy court case.  The article gives the reader an idea of what life for an African American was like in the 1800’s.




“Elizabeth Jennings Graham.” Jan 22, 2017.

This image is the only known image of Elizabeth Jennings.  She is wearing traditional clothes while standing by a couch.  The image gives a look at the fashion and traditions of the era and helps tell the story by letting people know what she looked like.

“Elizabeth Jennings Grave.” 2012. Jan 31. 2017.

This image shows where Elizabeth Jennings lies resting today.  The sign lists her as a “notable person.”  The image shows where and what to look for if you wanted to find her grave.

“Fifth Avenue 1865.” 1865. March 03, 2017.

The image shows what Fifth Avenue looked like in New York in 1865. The image shows what traditional life might have been like living in New York in 1865.

“New York 1849.” 1849. March 03, 2017.

The image shows a skyline of New York in 1849. The image shows what New York looked like when Elizabeth Jennings was living. It helps the reader have a context of what life was like in New York.

“Nineteenth Century Streetcar.” Jan 18, 2017.

The image shows a traditional horse – drawn streetcar in the 1800s.  The image gives a look at what streetcars looked like in Elizabeth Jennings’ times.  It also shows what the roads they rode on were like.

O’Reilly, Edward and Eric Robinson. “Corner Of Pearl And Chatham Streets.” 2012,

This illustration shows the corner of Pearl and Chatham streets where Elizabeth Jennings’ struggle on the streetcar took place.  The illustration shows what towns looked like in Elizabeth Jennings’ time and helps the reader understand the events on the streetcar.

“The Anti – Slavery Bugle.” 1855.

This image shows an overview of a page in a newspaper where you can find a quote from Elizabeth Jennings’ judge.  The image shows what newspapers looked like in 1855 and what kind of things would be written in them.

“Thomas L. Jennings.” 2013. Jan 22, 2017.

The picture of Thomas L. Jennings shows Elizabeth Jennings’ father sitting traditionally for a photograph.  The picture gives a look at what Elizabeth’s father looked like when he was younger.  The image also helps tell the story by showing another idea of what Elizabeth Jennings might look like.

“Water Street 1863.” 1863. March 03, 2017.

The image shows Wall Street in New York in 1863.  It helps the viewer understand what a skyline looked like during Elizabeth Jennings’ time.